|Overall Cartel Period||1992-1995|
|Participants||Arjo Wiggins Appleton plc; Bolloré SA; Carrs Paper Ltd.; Distribuidora Vizcaina de Papeles SL; Mitsubishi HiTech Paper Bielefeld GmbH; Papelera Guipuzcoana de Zicuñaga SA; Papeteries Mougeot SA; Papierfabrik August Koehler AG; Sappi Ltd.; Torraspapel SA; Zanders Feinpapiere;|
|Total Fines (DOJ)||No fines imposed|
|Total Fines (EC)||€271 million|
In 1996, the European Commission (“EC”) began an investigation into the carbonless paper industry. Also known as “self-copying” paper, carbonless paper is used to create duplicates of documents. Over 90% of the carbonless paper produced can be found in business forms, delivery slips and bank transfer forms. The EC found that, during the period of infringement, the market value for carbonless paper was approximately €850 million annually in the European Economic Area (“EEA”). The cartel consisted of members of the Association of European Manufacturers of Carbonless Paper, a group accounting for 85–90% of carbonless paper sales in the EEA in 1994, and three other European producers. The EC’s investigation revealed that from 1992 to 1995 cartel members agreed to collective price increases and market allocation at national and regional meetings.
- In April 2007, the European Court of First Instance confirmed the existence and duration of the cartel and reduced the fines imposed on two companies.
- The total fines imposed by the EC after the Court’s decision was approximately €270 million.
- Sappi Ltd. received full immunity from its fines for coming forward to the EC with information that launched the investigations.
|Arjo Wiggins Appleton plc||€ 141.8 million||12/20/2001|
|Papierfabrik August Koehler AG||€ 33.1 million||12/20/2001|
|Zanders Feinpapiere||€ 29.8 million||12/20/2001|
|Bolloré SA||€ 22.7 million||12/20/2001|
|Mitsubishi HiTech Paper Bielefeld GmbH||€ 21.2 million||12/20/2001|
|Torraspapel SA||€ 14.2 million||12/20/2001|
|Papeteries Mougeot SA||€ 3.6 million||12/20/2001|
|Distribuidora Vizcaina de Papeles SL||€ 1.8 million||12/20/2001|
|Carrs Paper Ltd.||€ 1.6 million||12/20/2001|
|Papelera Guipuzcoana de Zicuñaga SA||€ 1.3 million||12/20/2001|