|Overall Cartel Period||1992-1998|
|Participants||SGL Carbon AG; UCAR International Inc.; Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd.; Showa Denko K.K.; VAW Aluminum AG; SEC Corp.; Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd.; Carbide/Graphite Group, Inc.|
|Total Fines (DOJ)||$437.1 million|
|Total Fines (EC)||€218.9 million|
In 1997, the European Commission (“EC”) launched raids on manufacturers of graphite electrodes, large columns used in electric furnaces to generate the intense heat required for steel manufacturing. The U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) also brought charges against all but one of the graphite electrode manufacturers investigated by the EC. Sales of graphite electrodes in the United States reached $500 million in 1996 and $1.7 billion for the total period of the cartel, and in the European Economic Area the market for these products was approximately €420 million in 1998. The EC, DOJ, Canadian Competition Bureau and Korean Fair Trade Commission (“KFTC”) all enforced their competition laws against the cartel members. The regulators found that, from 1992 to 1998, cartel members regularly attended meetings, including chief executive level “Top Guy” meetings, in the Far East, Europe and the United States where they agreed on the volume of sales for each company. The cartel also agreed to divide the world market and designate on a regional basis which company would set the price that others would follow.
- The DOJ imposed a fine of $10 million, the largest competition fine imposed on an individual by the Antitrust Division, on Robert Koehler, the CEO of SGL Carbon.
- The DOJ imposed a fine of $1.25 million on Robert Krass, the President and CEO of UCAR International Inc. and sentenced him to 17 months in prison.
- The KFTC imposed fines on cartel members totaling more than ₩11 billion (subsequently reduced to ₩5.7 billion). This is the first case in which the KFTC applied Korean competition law extraterritorially and imposed fines on the participants of an international cartel.
- A Canadian federal court fined six companies approximately $25 million CAD for their roles in the cartel, and UCAR Inc. negotiated an additional $19 million CAD in restitution with Canadian steel companies.
- Mitsubishi was convicted of aiding and abetting the price-fixing conspiracy after a two-week jury trial in the United States .
- Corporate Participants with the DOJ
- Individual Participants with the DOJ
- Corporate Participants in Other Jurisdictions
- Individual Participants in Other Jurisdictions
|Company||Conspiracy Period||Fine (USD)||Plea Date||No. of Excluded Individuals||Plea Agreement|
|SGL Carbon AG||7/92-6/97||$135 million||06/16/1999||0||
|Mitsubishi Corporation||3/92-6/97||$134 million||02/12/2001||N/A|
|UCAR International Inc.||7/92-6/97||$110 million||04/24/1998||4||
|Showa Denko Carbon, Inc.||1/93-1/97||$32.5 million||09/08/1998||N/A||
|Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd.||7/92-6/97||$6 million||05/20/1999||N/A||
|SEC Corporation||7/92-6/97||$4.8 million||11/17/1999||N/A|
|Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd.||7/92-6/97||$2.5 million||11/17/1999||N/A|
|Carbide/Graphite Group of Pittsburgh||7/92-6/97||Immunity||N/A|
|Individual||Company||Prison Sentence||Fine (USD)||Plea Date||Plea Agreement|
|Robert Koehler, CEO||SGL Carbon AG||None||$10 million||06/16/1999||
|Robert Krass, CEO||UCAR International Inc.||17 months||$1.2 million||09/29/1999|
|Robert Hart, COO||UCAR International Inc.||7 months||$1 million||09/23/1999|
|UCAR International Inc.||₩ 676 million||03/20/2002|
|SGL Carbon AG||₩ 963 million||03/20/2002|
|Showa Denko K.K.||₩ 1.2 billion||11/06/2006|
|Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd.||₩ 1.2 billion||03/20/2002|
|Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd.||₩ 1.2 billion||08/23/2002|
|SEC Corporation||₩ 359 million||03/20/2002|
|SEC Carbon, Ltd.||$ 250,000||11/09/2007|
|Mitsubishi Corporation||$ 1 million||05/12/2005|
|Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd.||$ 100,000||12/08/2005|
|UCAR Inc.||$ 11 million||03/18/2009|
|SGL Carbon AG||$ 12.5 million||07/18/2000|
|Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd.||$ 250,000||02/05/2001|
|SGL Carbon AG||€ 80.3 million||07/18/2001|
|UCAR International Inc.||€ 50.4 million||07/18/2001|
|Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd.||€ 24.5 million||07/18/2001|
|Showa Denko K.K.||€ 17.4 million||07/18/2001|
|VAW Aluminum AG||€ 11.6 million||07/18/2001|
|SEC Corporation||€ 12.2 million||07/18/2001|
|Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd.||€ 12.2 million||07/18/2001|
|Carbide/Graphite Group, Inc.||€ 10.3 million||07/18/2001|
|Robert P. Krass, Senior Vice President||UCAR Inc.||None||$ 70,000||09/18/2003|
|Robert J. Hart, Senior Vice President||UCAR Inc.||None||$ 50,000||03/02/2005|